The lifetime prevalence common low back pain in industrialized countries is estimated at 60% to 70%.
For instance, In the Netherlands nearly 70000 patients are diagnosed with back pain each year and among which 10000 undergo spinal surgery. In the United Kingdom, Low Back Pain (LBP) was identified as the most common cause of disability in young adults. In the United States, an estimated 149 million days of work per year are lost because of LBP.
And after the surgery, the lifespan of prosthetics designed for the human body would be the main issue to maintain a healthy life particularly, for senior citizens. The expected service life of current spinal implants is expected to be around 10-15 years.
Due to the complexity of the surgery, current commercially available cages increase the risk of damaging nerve roots, the innervation of the psoas muscle etc., during operation.
Also, the non-porous titanium cages have a very high stiffness, much larger than human bone, which results in osteoporosis in the vicinity of the implant.